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Friday, March 8

  1. page How to Edit This Wiki edited How to gain editing rights to this WIKI ... the homepage screen screen. Create a ... name…

    How to gain editing rights to this WIKI
    ...
    the homepage screenscreen.
    Create a
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    name and passwordpassword.
    Once you have created an account, you can request editing privileges by clicking “join this wiki” in the side-bar menu on the right side of this page. (Note: you do not need to create your own WIKI)
    ...
    then begin editingediting.
    The Materials
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    your wikispaces accountaccount.
    How to edit the WIKI once you have editorial privileges
    You can edit any of the page content by simply accessing the page you want to work on and clicking the gray “edit” box in the upper right corner of the screen.
    ...
    the “compare” functionfunction.
    You can also leave specific discussion/comments in response to recent edits or to suggest edits without actually altering the site content (we highly recommend using this feature if you are unsure about any edits you are making). To contribute to a discussion without actually making edits, click on “Discussion” in the upper left menu and then post a message.
    Editing Protocol
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    Finally, the conditions accompanying financial support for the development of this WIKI require us to limit editing privileges to representatives of government organizations only. While we welcome the perspective of non-government participants, we must require that such persons obtain partnership with a government member who can obtain editing privileges and submit edits/comments on behalf of the non-governmental participant.
    Undo Edits
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    compare differences.
    Advanced Editing
    After discussing changes within the working groups and using the "Discussion" feature, Wiki editors may want to add more than just text to pages, or add additional pages. For most of the following processes, you could edit in the Visual Editor or the WikiText Editor. The directions below will be for using the WikiText Editor. To access the WikiText Editor:
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    Adding Links
    There are two ways to add a link within the WikiText Editor:
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    to which page,page or external
    Type [[PageName]] or [[URL]] in the location on the page where you would like the link to appear.
    If you would like the text displayed to be different than the actual link, type [[PageName|TextYouWantDisplayed]].
    ...
    The new link will often place itself at the very top left of the page, if so, you can copy and paste the link to the correct location.
    Adding Headings
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    is the largest,largest and highest
    Locate or type the text you would like to make into a heading.
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    the text (i.e.(for example, =Some Heading
    Adding Line Breaks
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    on a separteseparate line between
    It will display like the line below.
    Adding New Pages
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  2. page We Want to Hear from You edited ... Do you have suggestions for the format? Do you have other feedback on this toolkit? Please s…
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    Do you have suggestions for the format?
    Do you have other feedback on this toolkit?
    Please send youyour feedback to
    (view changes)
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  3. page Acknowledgements edited Our Team ... the following people people for their David Allaway, Oregon DEQ, Workgroup …

    Our Team
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    the following
    people
    people for their
    David Allaway, Oregon DEQ, Workgroup Co-Chair
    Shannon Davis, EPA Region 9, Workgroup Co-Chair
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    US EPA
    Madalyn Cioci, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
    John Davis, Mohave Desert and Mountain Recycling Association
    Mark Gagliardi, City of Oakland
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    Gaither, Pacific NowrthwestNorthwest Pollution Prevention
    Brian Helmowski, CalRecycle
    Timonie Hood, EPA Region 9
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    US EPA
    Tom Huetteman, EPA Region 9
    Sego Jackson, Snohomish County
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  4. page Glossary edited ... is not. Consumption is defined in economic circles as the final purchase of goods or serv…
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    is not.
    Consumption is defined in economic circles as the final purchase of goods or services. In this definition, consumers are primarily limited to households (individuals) and governments. The vast majority of purchases by businesses are not consumption, but one small category is: investment purchases, or the equipment or inventory that businesses purchases but do not sell in the same year.
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    a set region (e.g.,region, such as a country).country. Consumption based
    Degradable organic carbon is the portion of organic carbon present in such solid waste as paper, food waste, and yard waste. In landfills, a fraction of this degradable organic carbon decomposes anaerobically and releases methane and carbon dioxide. The fraction that decomposes depends on the waste type.
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    manufacturer, downstream emittionsemissions are the
    Embodied energy is the available energy that was used in the work of making a product. Embodied energy uses an accounting methodology which aims to find the sum total of the energy necessary for an entire product lifecycle. This lifecycle includes raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, assembly, installation, disassembly, deconstruction and/or decomposition.
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    emissions physically orginatingoriginating within the
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    typically geographic.
    Global

    Global
    warming potential
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    carbon dioxide (e.g.(for example, one kilogram
    Input/output analysis is one of a set of related methods which show how the parts of a system are affected by a change in one part of that system. Input-output analysis specifically shows how industries are linked together through supplying inputs for the output of an economy.
    Materials management is "an approach to serving human needs by using/reusing resources most productively and sustainably throughout their life cycles, generally minimizing the amount of materials involved and all the associated environmental impacts" (EPA 2009a). It addresses the flow of materials and goods through the economy, including but not limited to industrial process waste and solid waste management. The purview is the total amount of materials in the U.S. domestic economy, including all imported and domestically-sourced raw materials that underwent some form of manufacturing transformation, net of exports. This is estimated to be on the order of 6.5 billion tons annually (WRI 2008). The end point of most economic activity involving materials is goods, or products and packaging. When discarded, products and packaging represent 73 percent of the “solid waste” material managed by local governments, which all together is a tiny fraction of the flow of materials through the economy (Char. MSW, EPA 2008).
    Methane commitment (MC) is a method of assigning GHG emissions to a landfill, and is based on waste disposed in a given year. It takes a lifecycle approach and counts GHGs emitted by that waste, regardless of when the emissions occur, and assigns it to the year in which the waste is placed in the landfill. For more information, see WIP and MC page.
    Non-energy-use GHG emissions are those GHG emissions not associated with energy production or use, but are associated with some industrial processes. For example, carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during conversion of limestone to lime, perfluorocarbon emissions are released during production of aluminum, magnesium, semiconductors, and other products, and methane emissions from natural gas processing associated with the manufacture of plastic products.
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    a defined region (e.g.,region, such as a county, state, country).country. Per capita
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    stewardship is the act of minimizing health, safety, environmental and social impacts, and maximizing economic benefits of a policy approach thatproduct and its packaging throughout all lifecycle stages. Product stewardship assigns responsibility for reducing life-cycle impactsminimizing a product’s environmental impact throughout all stages of products and packagingits life to the parties who haveprivate chain of commerce (producers, retailers, consumers, etc.), recognizing that the producer of a product has the greatest control over those impacts – generally producers (or brand owners) who makes design decisions. The goalsability to minimize these adverse impacts. Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a mandatory type of product stewardship policies arethat requires, at a minimum, that the producer’s responsibility for their product extends to stimulate greener designpost-consumer management of productsthat product and packagingits packaging. EPR policy requires shifting financial and management responsibility, with government oversight, upstream to reduce the unfunded burden on local governments for disposal of these increasingly complex and toxic products and packaging.
    Extended
    producer responsibility is based onand away from the "polluter pays" principle,public sector, and puts onus on manufacturers forproviding incentives to producers to incorporate environmental considerations into the entire lifecycle impactsdesign of thetheir products and packaging they produce. packaging.
    Scope 3: Institutional GHG inventory reporting systems classify emissions depending on where they originate. Scope 1 emissions (or "direct emissions") are from sources that the institution controls or owns. Scope 2 emissions (or "indirect emissions") are those generated from purchased energy that the institution consumes. Scope 3 emissions are all other indirect emissions, including contributions from material-related upstream emissions, waste management emissions, emissions from air travel and commuting, and emissions from out-sourced activities. Reporting of Scope 3 emissions are optional in some GHG inventory reporting systems, and if reported, must be clearly defined as to which Scope 3 emissions are included.
    Systems-based inventory is an emissions inventory where systems represent and comprise all the parts of the economy working to fulfill a particular need. For example, the provision of food system includes all emissions from the electric power, transportation, industrial, and agricultural sectors associated with growing, processing, transporting, and disposing of food. The systems view is helpful for framing opportunities to reduce GHG emissions through prevention‐oriented mitigation strategies that act across an entire system. For a comparison with consumption-based inventories, see the consumption and systems inventories page.
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    upstream emissions are the are the
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    a given year that year, regardless
    Waste management is a subset of "materials management" (see above), specifically addressing the management of "wastes" or "discards" when the waste generator no longer wants them. The term "waste management" is often used to apply to all discards, including garbage, composting, and recycling. The term is sometimes applied more narrowly, specific just to "garbage", as some recycling professionals oppose classifying recyclables as "waste" or recycling as "waste management".
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    12:19 pm
  5. page Resources edited ... U.S. EPA Recycled Content (Recon) Tool (Excel or on-line version). Estimates the GHG emissions…
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    U.S. EPA Recycled Content (Recon) Tool (Excel or on-line version). Estimates the GHG emissions and energy impacts from purchasing and/or manufacturing materials with varying degrees of post-consumer recycled content. Recon includes 17 materials, including metal, plastic and paper products. Recon uses the same background life-cycle data as WARM.
    U.S. EPA WasteWise Office Carbon Footprint Tool (Excel-based). Includes calculations for solid waste and recycling volumes, and purchase of recycled content materials, primarily applicable for use by office-based organizations.
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    Decision Support Tool (Excel-based,Tool(Excel-based, not publicly
    Application of the U.S. Decision Support Tool (DST) for Materials and Waste Management {Thorneloe.MSWDST.pdf} By Thorneloe, S. Weitz, K. and Jambeck, J. 2007. Paper illustrates how the MSW-decision support tool (DST) can be used by evaluating ten management strategies for a hypothetical medium-sized community - to compare the life-cycle environmental and cost tradeoffs.
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    Waste {Application_of_Life_Cycle_Mgt.pdf} .
    Sound Resource Management's Measuring the Environmental Benefits Calculator (MEBCalc™) is proprietary software for computing the environmental footprint of a community’s municipal solid waste (MSW) management system, from collection through final disposition of each discarded product or packaging material. Environmental impacts covered in the footprint include climate change as well as public health (respiratory disease, cancer, and toxicity), ecosystem toxicity, waterway nutrification, and acid rain.
    Clean Air Cool Planet Campus Calculator (Excel-based). Includes a wide range of emission and cost calculations for many activities, including power usage, transportation, waste management and offsets. The waste management portion of the calculator uses emission factors from WARM, but does not account for upstream emissions. The tool only calculates emissions from direct waste management either by landfilling or incineration. Includes offsets for composting. Also includes benefits (derived from the Environmental Defense Fund paper calculator) for using recycled content paper.
    Database Sources of GHG Emissions Factors for Materials and Waste
    Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) is an input/output life cycle analysis tool produced by the Green Design Institute at Carnegie Mellon University.
    PlasticsEurope EcoProfilesEcoProfiles.
    Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE) database of emissions factors for many building materials, compiled by University of Bath. This site also offers a wiki resource with supplemental/additional information.
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    Municipal Solid WasteWaste.
    Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database U.S. Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) database, managed by NREL, contains data modules that quantify material and energy flows into and out of the environment for common unit processes, including some related to materials- or waste-related data. (Requires Registration).
    Initiatives or Campaigns Addressing GHG Impacts of Materials and Waste
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  6. page Resources edited Resources This page contains information and links to tools and resources that may be helpful in m…
    Resources
    This page contains information and links to tools and resources that may be helpful in measuring, understanding, and reporting GHG emissions or reductions relating to materials or waste management. Not all of the content listed on this page is endorsed or supported by all of the parties that created this toolkit, but it is offered here to provide a broad cross-section of resources. Use the contents to the right to navigate the different types of resources.
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    or Protocols (Existing)
    PAS 2050 - Assessing the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Goods and Services (Published by the British Standards Institute, includes a standard, guidance and verification protocols).
    Local Government Operations Protocol (designed to allow local governments to quantify and report GHG emissions resulting from their operations, including landfill emissions calculations).
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    Climate Action Reserve Landfill Protocol and Landfill Verification Protocols U.S. (Provides guidance to account for, report, and verify emission reductions associated with the diversion of eligible organic wastes away from anaerobic landfill disposal systems and to composting operations where the material degrades in a controlled aerobic process).
    Chicago Climate Exchange - Avoided Emissions from Organic Waste Disposal Offset Project Protocol
    GHG Standards or Protocols (Under Development or Proposed)
    Greenhouse
    Greenhouse Gas Protocol - Draft Product Life
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    Reporting Standard (as of April 2011 nearing completion)
    Greenhouse Gas
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    Supply Chain http://www.ghgprotocol.org/files/ghgp/public/ghg-protocol-scope-3-standard-executive-summary1.pdf
    Proposed Recycling and Waste Diversion Reporting Project Protocol
    GHG Calculators Covering Materials and/or Waste
    California Air Resources Board Conversion Tool (Online tool). Converts CO2 amounts to familiar equivalents
    EcoCycle's 20-Year Impact of Methane Calculator (Excel-based). Recalculates GHG emissions – carbon dioxide, methane, or carbon dioxide equivalents – to a 20-year timeframe from a 100 year time-frame. The global warming potential of methane is 72 over 20 years, rather than 21 over 100 years.
    U.S. EPA Waste Reduction Model (WARM) (Excel or on-line version). Calculates and totals GHG emissions or energy impacts of baseline and alternative waste management practices—source reduction, recycling, combustion, composting, and landfilling. The model calculates emissions in MTCE, MTCO2E, and BTU for 26 materials and 8 mixed material categories. (See supporting and background documents for this calculator in Reference 2 below.)
    Environment Canada's Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Calculator for Waste Management (Excel-based). Calculates and totals GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices—recycling, anaerobic digestion, combustion, composting, and landfilling –for 19 materials/products. Landfill gas recovery and transportation distances to waste management facilities can be modified by the user. Environment Canada’s tool builds on WARM data and uses Canadian-based data when possible.
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    Cool Climate Network household and business climate calculators. One of the few calculators that includes "upstream" emissions associated with materials use.
    Oregon Carbon Calculator. An Oregon-specific version of the Cool Climate Network calculator.
    Seattle Climate Partnership (Excel-based and online version). Includes calculations for several purchased materials and solid waste, primarily applicable for use by office-based organizations.
    U.S. EPA Waste Reduction Model (WARM) (Excel or on-line version)

    U.S. EPA Recycled Content (Recon) Tool (Excel or on-line version). Estimates the GHG emissions and energy impacts from purchasing and/or manufacturing materials with varying degrees of post-consumer recycled content. Recon includes 17 materials, including metal, plastic and paper products. Recon uses the same background life-cycle data as WARM.
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    Office Carbon CalculatorFootprint Tool (Excel-based). Includes
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    Decision Support Tool(Excel-based,Tool (Excel-based, not publicly
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    Waste Management By{Thorneloe.MSWDST.pdf} By Thorneloe, S.
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    Solid Waste {Application_of_Life_Cycle_Mgt.pdf}
    Sound Resource Management's Measuring the Environmental Benefits Calculator (MEBCalc™) is proprietary software for computing the environmental footprint of a community’s municipal solid waste (MSW) management system, from collection through final disposition of each discarded product or packaging material. Environmental impacts covered in the footprint include climate change as well as public health (respiratory disease, cancer, and toxicity), ecosystem toxicity, waterway nutrification, and acid rain.
    Clean Air Cool Planet Campus Calculator (Excel-based). Includes a wide range of emission and cost calculations for many activities, including power usage, transportation, waste management and offsets. The waste management portion of the calculator uses emission factors from WARM, but does not account for upstream emissions. The tool only calculates emissions from direct waste management either by landfilling or incineration. Includes offsets for composting. Also includes benefits (derived from the Environmental Defense Fund paper calculator) for using recycled content paper.
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    This section provides studies or examples of how product or activities contributing to GHG emissions accounting or reductions have been measured and presented.
    Note that GHG product-related emissions listed here should be third-party verified, and this Wiki development group has not endorsed any of these products, nor verified any of the product GHG reporting. It is intended that some of these product examples may be useful in crafting procurement policies.
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    the county's
    Climate
    Climate Change, Energy,
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    to composting, and recycling, and
    PAS 2050 Case Studies Links to case studies that describe product carbon footprinting process using PAS 2050 at six different companies.
    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of Packaging Options for Shipping Soft Goods in E-commerce and Catalog Sales evaluated the environmental burdens of different options for shipping non-breakable items in an e-commerce/catalog order fulfillment environment. It demonstrates the importance of waste prevention, and shows that when comparing dissimilar materials, recyclability and recycled content don't always correlate to reduced environmental impacts.
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    ton of product)product).
    LCA of Drinking Water Delivery Options compares the environmental impacts of different methods of delivering drinking water to households, including single use bottles (recyclable and/or compostable), vs. tap water methods, with details on the impacts and benefits of different resin choices and end-of-life management methods. A supplemental report demonstrates the moderate benefits from recycling single-use PET water bottles, but the far greater benefits of avoiding them in the first place.
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    State of OregonhelpsOregon helps understand the
    References and Additional Information
    1. EPA. Sustainable Materials Management: The Road Ahead
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    Emissions and SinksSinks.
    3. Recycling,
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    Emissions in MinnesotaMinnesota.
    4. ref4EPA,
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    an estimated 42%42 percent of total
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    Portland Metropolitan RegionRegion.
    6. Walsh,
    ...
    for the CO?CO2? (Article on
    7. Morris, Jeffrey. June 2007. The Environmental Value of Metro Region Recycling for 2007 specific to GHG inventories vs. footprints for businesses, and may be helpful in communicating the importance of "consumption" or "supply chain" emissions.
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    in U.S. INternationalInternational Trade, 1997-2004.
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    ISWA White PaperPaper.
    10. Stolaroff,
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    packaging" contribute 44%44 percent of GHG
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    inventories tell herewhere emissions occur,
    12. Hertwich and Peters. Carbon Footprint of Nations: A Global, Trade-Linked Analysis
    (Estimates the consumption-based "carbon footprint" of nations, including the US).
    ...
    and Materials ManagementManagement.
    14. Climate
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    David Allaway, ODEQ)ODEQ).
    15. Franklin Associates. 2010. Life Cycle Inventory of 100% of Postconsumer HDPE and PET Recycled Resin from Postconsumer Containers and Packaging.
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    and Disposal 1010 (Webinars released
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    in 2008 (26%).(26 percent).
    18. Journal of Industrial Ecology. Jan/Feb 2010. Special 2010 Issue All articles and commentaries - listed below - focus on sustainability and consumption).
    Can Sustainable Consumers and Producers Save the Planet? by Munasinghe, M.
    A New Vision of Sustainable Consumption by Krantz, R.
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    Fedrigo & HontelezHontelez.
    How City
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    Their Resource HinterlandHinterland: A Spatial
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    (©2010, Yale University)University).
    User−Producer Interaction
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    Housing Energy Innovations :Innovations: Energy Innovation
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    Heiskanen & LovioLovio.
    Life Cycle
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    and Business Implications :Implications: Evidence From
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    Kaenzig & WüstenhagenWüstenhagen.
    Standby Consumption in Households Analyzed With a Practice Theory Approach by Gram-Hanssen, K.
    Buying In: The Secret Dialogue Between What We Buy and Who We Are by Walker, R.
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    The New Economics of Sustainable Consumption: Seeds of Change by Gill Seyfang and edited by Elliot, D.
    Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole by Barber, B.
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    John R. EhrenfeldEhrenfeld.
    Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture by Ruppel Shell, E.
    Shopping Our Way to Safety: How We Changed From Protecting the Environment to Protecting Ourselves by Szasz, A.
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    12:06 pm

Wednesday, March 6

  1. page Measuring Results edited ... Timing of Emission Reductions: For some materials management practices in any given year, the …
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    Timing of Emission Reductions: For some materials management practices in any given year, the resulting emissions, or emissions reductions, may occur in future years. This is essential to keep in mind when working in the construct of a larger community inventory, as other emissions are reported in the years in which they actually occur. See Timing of Emissions page for additional details.
    Tools
    ...
    Targets page.
    Methodologies-US EPA's WARM ToolWARM Setting TargetsUS EPA's WARM Tool
    US EPA's WARM ToolEPA’sEPA’s WAste Reduction
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    8 mixed materialsmaterial categories. WARM
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    a Web-based calculatorandcalculator and as a
    WARM calculates and totals GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices—source reduction, recycling, combustion, composting, and landfilling. The model calculates emissions in metric tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE), metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MTCO2E), and energy units (million BTU) across 34 material types commonly found in municipal solid waste (MSW). The emission factors represent the GHG emissions associated with managing 1 short ton of MSW in a specified manner. GHG savings should be calculated by comparing the emissions associated with the alternative scenario with the emissions associated with the baseline scenario, as opposed to simply multiplying the quantity by an emission factor. Without the comparison, part of the emissions savings or cost will be excluded.
    WARM is widely used by national, state, and local governments. It has become the standard for most communities for a variety of reasons -- it is easy to use, it is open source where many other tools are proprietary, and it is free to use. Because it is now so commonly used, it lends some universality and comparability to the analyses that are done with it. It is a "common denominator" for solid waste GHG emissions in the US. Furthermore, the emissions factors that underlie the WARM tool can also be useful for estimating life cycle emissions associated with certain materials. In sum, WARM is one of the best tools available for state and local governments to estimate the GHG emissions associated with prevention, recycling, and composting. WARM is not without limitations. More about WARM and its limitations is summarized here.
    Methodologies-Environment Canada's GHG Calculator for Waste ManagementEnvironment Canada's GHG Calculator for Waste Management
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    happens. The toolstool is available
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    link above.
    Methodologies-ICLEI CAPPA ToolICLEI CAPPA Tool
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    wide range (e.g. electricity, transportation)of sectors, such as electricity and transportation, simultaneously. Opportunities
    Composting (kitchen and yard waste)
    Methane flaring at landfills
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    For each option, CAPPA quantifies two types of avoided GHGs associated with the annual activity: (1) approximation of the annual landfill methane reduction and (2) avoided lifecycle emissions. Both numbers are based on WARM emission factors. Some outstanding concerns for using CAPPA relate to the current lack of methodology to address the timing of emissions (Link to this page for additional details). Specifically, the algorithm for prioritizing options for emissions reductions currently only credits recycling, composting, and source reduction by the avoided annual landfill methane reduction.
    Methodologies-US EPA's MSW Decision Support ToolUS EPA's MSW Decision Support Tool
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    given constraints (e.g.(for example, to determine the
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    as diverting 40%40 percent landfill waste).
    ...
    taken from http://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/ghg/f02024.pdfMSWhttp://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/ghg/f02024.pdf. MSW DST requires
    ...
    Weitz - Kaw@rti.org),Kaw@rti.org).
    Examples where communities have used MSW DST include: California's 2010 Life Cycle Assessment and Economic Analysis of Organic Waste Management and GHG Reduction Options and St. Paul, Washington State, and a composting facility in North Carolina.
    EPA has done a comprehensive comparison of the WARM and MSW-DST tools. EPA does not recommend one in lieu of the other, but rather recommends choosing your tool based on the scope of analysis. Great effort has been made to reconcile differences between the two tools, such that given identical assumptions, the tools would yield identical results. The only major methodological difference between the tools is treatment of carbon storage and sequestration. MSW-DST reports carbon storage and sequestration separately. As of early 2011, MSW DST is not available free-of-charge, while WARM is. There are plans to make MSW-DST available at no cost in the future.
    Methodologies-Process Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)Process Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)
    ...
    Calculator for GHGWaste Management, are
    In most cases, off-the-shelf tools such as WARM will serve the needs of state and local governments, particularly when it comes to estimating the GHG emissions reductions or reduction potential of many prevention, recycling, and composting activities. Occasionally, however, special questions will arise regarding management methods or materials that have not been documented elsewhere. For example, WARM uses an average for all carpet. A green building program focusing on purchasing guidelines might want to know more about different types of carpet, such as Nylon-6 vs. Nylon-6,6 vs. wool. To answer these types of more detailed questions, process LCAs should be considered.
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    process LCAs areis that they
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    process LCAs areis often very
    Methodologies-EIO-LCAEIO-LCA
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    Assessment) is aan input/output life
    While EIO-LCA is a life cycle analysis tool, it operates very differently than "traditional" process LCAs (described above). While process LCAs are typically denominated in terms of mass, following the flows of materials through a supply chain and associated industrial processes, input-output LCAs are denominated in terms of dollars, following the flow of money through the economy.
    EIO-LCA only evaluates life-cycle emissions upstream, associated with manufacturing, resource extraction and supply chains. It does not evaluate the full life cycle emissions (including use and end-of-life) for any given product or material. As such, its applicability for informing recycling programs is limited. In contrast, EIO-LCA can offer some rough estimates of the GHG impacts associated with producing a variety of commodities, and by extension, the GHG benefits of not producing those commodities (resulting from waste prevention, reuse, or other "sustainable consumption" efforts).
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  2. page Setting Targets edited ... SMART BET allows users to input readily available information, such as tons of waste landfille…
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    SMART BET allows users to input readily available information, such as tons of waste landfilled and recycled annually, local population, and landfill tip fees. The user may also provide a more detailed breakdown of the disposal and recycling streams, if this information is available. The tool then combines this information with nationwide average waste disposal data, typical PAYT results, and greenhouse gas emission factors originally created for EPA's Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to provide the greenhouse gas and cost savings that your community is likely to see after implementation of SMART.
    ICLEI CAPPA Tool
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    a wide range,range of sectors, such as
    Composting (kitchen and yard waste)
    Methane flaring at landfills
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    1:18 pm

Tuesday, March 5

  1. page EIO-LCA edited ... Assessment) is a an input/output life ... money flows the to first-tier suppliers, EI…
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    Assessment) is aan input/output life
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    money flows theto first-tier suppliers,
    EIO-LCA (and input/output LCA methods in general) offers two major advantages over process LCA: it is free, and it is fast. In addition, by including all emissions throughout the entire supply chain, it avoids the problem in process LCA of "cut-off errors", the exclusion of emissions from processes that are believed to contribute little to the total.
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    use and end-of-lfe)end-of-life) for any
    Some sectors are exceptionally broad and reflect average conditions within that sector (commodity). For example, all fresh vegetables are classified in a single commodity sector, "vegetable and melon farming". EIO-LCA doesn't differentiate between potatoes and lettuce, or between organic and non-organic production. Similarly, EIO-LCA doesn't distinguish between paper products made with higher vs. lower levels of recycled content.
    Because input/output LCAs are denominated in dollars (or other currency), a doubling of consumption (expenses) in any single commodity category is assumed to translate into an equal doubling of impacts. This is clearly not the case for many commodities. For example, a $30,000 hybrid car will not necessarily have twice the GHG impacts (in manufacturing) compared to a $15,000 conventional car. Similarly, if a consumer is choosing an expensive but highly durable product over a less expensive but lower quality product, it would be important to compare products on the basis of life cycle costs (dollars spent not just to buy one durable vs. one low quality product, but rather dollars spent over a longer period of time, reflecting the greater number of purchases of the lower priced but lower quality product).
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    4:40 pm

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